Cambria Nike Base
Cambria Nike Base (NF-16), Mid 1950s-Mid 1960s, Niagara County, Cambria. Launcher Area for Double Nike-Ajax Missile site, associated IFC area was Sanborn. Located on Upper Mountain Road and Cambria Road. Now Cambria Town Hall and vehicle maintenance. Launching area is overgrown, and barracks were converted to Elderly Apartments. For more sites see NIKE.
Campbell, Fort
Fort Campbell, 1777, Otsego County, Cherry Valley. Breastworks of logs and earth around the house of Major Samuel Campbell. Replaced by stronger works as Fort Alden in 1778.
Canajoharie, Fort
Fort Canajoharie, 1747, Herkimer County, Town of Danube. Indian Castle in Danube, or Upper Castle of the Mohawks, was first built in about 1710 on the flats just below Nowadaga Creek. Phonetic spellings of name include Conojoharie, Conojohare, Conohery, Conogohery, Canowaroghare, and Cannatchoerai to mention but a few. In 1747 Sir William Johnson had a small fortification built to protect the castle. Reported as one acre in size with two blockhouses. Another account is a 150 foot square stockade (1/2 acre) with two 24 foot square blockhouses. Referred to as the fort at Canajoharie but never officially named as such. New fortifications built in 1755 called Fort Hendrick. Historical markers are 3 Km apart but refer to same location. See Fort Hendrick for continuation.
Canaseraga Blockhouse
Canaseraga Blockhouse, 1756, Madison County, Sullivan Hamlet (Canaserga). Blockhouse constructed under the direction of Sir William Johnson, 24 square foot base with an 18-24" second floor projection. Built for the protection of the Tuscarora Village of Canaseraga, located east of Chittenango on NYS Route 5. There is no evidence this blockhouse existed much beyond the French and Indian War. In Oct 1780, an American detachment from Ft Stanwix (Schuyler) of about 60 under the command of Cpt Walter Vrooman, was camped at the abandoned Tuscarora Village awaiting reinforcements for a raid on British positions on Lake Onondaga, when captured by British forces.
Carillon, Fort
Fort Carillon, 1755/58 - 1759, Essex County, Ticonderoga. Built by the French, and partially destroyed by them upon withdrawal in 1759. Rebuilt as Fort Ticonderoga 1759-60 by British, captured by Americans in 1775, recaptured by British on the way to Saratoga in 1777.
Carleton, Fort
Fort Carleton, 1778, Jefferson County, Carleton or Buck's Island, near Cape Vincent, St. Lawrence River. Initially named with the Island for previous Gov. of Ontario 1766, Maj Gen Sir Guy Carleton, then renamed Fort Haldimand, for then current Gov. of Ontario 1778, Gen Sir Frederick Haldimand. See Haldimand Fort.
Castle William
Castle William: 1811, Kings County, Brooklyn, Governor's Island. Started in 1807 and completed 1811 of red sandstone. Named for its designer Jonathan Williams from Newark, a nephew of Benjamin Franklin. A three tiered 100 gun roundhouse (horseshoe), 200 feet in diameter, 40 feet high, 8 feet thick based on a French design. It was the first casemated fort in North America, its multi-tiered parapets provided greater firepower than earlier fort designs. Held Confederate prisoners 1862-1870.
Caughnawage, Fort
Fort Caughnawage, 1779, Montgomery County, Fonda. Unverified blockhouse at Sandy Flats just west of Fonda. Village was destroyed in a spring 1780 raid. The fort is reported to have been torn down after the Revolutionary War.
Champlain Atlas
Champlain Atlas F, Site #1, 1961-65, Clinton County, Champlain. See Atlas F for detailed information.
Charles Redoubt/ Fort Charles
Charles Redoubt / Fort Charles, 1776, New York County, Manhattan. See Fort Prince (Prince Charles).
Chauncey, Fort
Fort Chauncey, 1812, Jefferson County, Sackets Harbor. Battle of Sackets Harbor 1812-15. A minor redoubt in a fortified line of 4 such "forts" (Kentucky, Virginia, Chauncey, Stark) anchored at Fort Pike on the Bay (later Madison Barracks) protecting the land side of Sackets Harbor. Named for Commodore Isaac Chauncy. Site East side of Monroe Street North of Main Street. See map at Sacketts Harbor Forts listing.
Chimney Point
Chimney Point, 1730, Vermont. Located directly opposite Crown Point, across a very narrow channel, the Chimney Point area has been occupied for at least 7,500 years. Native Americans regularly camped at the point while hunting and fishing. The French first built a stockaded fort there, Fort de Pieux (which is "fort of posts" and not a name per se) in 1730. This fort was the key French fortress in the Southern part of the lake until Ste. Frederic was built across the channel. The French called this area "Pointe a la Chevelure." The British called it Chimney Point in 1759 after a remaining French farmstead cimney.
Citizens Redoubt
Citizens Redoubt, 1776, New York County, New York City. Originally called Badlam's Redoubt this defense mounted 8 guns and was built in spring 1776. The site was high ground, Rutger's Hill, at Market and Madison Streets. After the Americans evacuated New York City, local citizens rebuilt it as Citizen's Redoubt.
Clinton, Castle
Clinton Castle, (also called South West Battery and City Battery): 1807, New York County, New York. More than a dozen forts were built to defend New York Harbor at the time of the War of 1812. The Southwest Battery was constructed on the rocks off the tip of Manhattan Island between 1807 and 1811, originally known as West Battery. Although fully armed with 28 cannon and staffed, the fort never had occasion to fire upon an enemy. In 1817, the fort was renamed Castle Clinton in honor of Mayor DeWitt Clinton, Mayor of New York City. The army vacated the fort in 1821 and the structure was deeded to New York City in 1823. 1824, a restaurant and entertainment center called Castle Garden. 1840s roofed over and used as an opera house and theater until 1854. August 3, 1855 opened as an immigrant landing depot, and during the next 34 years, over 8 million people entered the United States through Castle Garden, until it was closed on April 18, 1890. December 10, 1896 reopened as the New York City Aquarium until closed in 1941. Restored by the NPS as a National Monument in 1960s.
Clinton, Fort - New York
New York County, New York City, 1814 Built on site of McGown's Pass Redoubt (1776) in Northeast corner of present Central Park. Near intersection of Fifth Avenue and East 107th Street. Postcard was labeled 1776 works but is not typical of Revolutionary War blockhouses and could not have existed in early 1900s when picture was taken due to the 1814 construction, so this was probably Fort Clinton which is now gone. Hill now has a Fort Clinton Monument. (Picture could also have been Blockhouse 1 reported nearby at 7th and 110th Street, but also 1814.)
Clinton, Fort - Orange County, 1777
Fort Montgomery. Construction started in January. Guarded first of the famous chains, vicinity of current Bear Mountain bridge, on West bank of the Hudson River, South of chain, South of Popolopen Creek. Companion to Fort Montgomery, to the North of the creek, captured by the British 6 Oct 1777. Renamed Fort Vaughan, destroyed and abandoned end of Oct 1777. Site at intersection of US 6 and US 9 at Bear Mountain State Park. Partially obliterated by bridge approaches.
Clinton, Fort - Orange County, West Point, 1778
Orange County, West Point, 1778 On Hudson River opposite Ft. Constitution. Originally named Fort Arnold, construction started in February and completed about Dec 1778. Renamed Fort Clinton in 1780 after Arnold's desertion to the British (The previous Clinton had been destroyed in Oct 1777). Secured the West end of the second West Point chain (Spring 1778 to Winter 1782).
Clinton, Fort - Saratoga County, Schuylerville, 1746
Saratoga County, Schuylerville, 1746 On Hudson River just South of present Schuylerville and the Fish Kill. Reconstruction of the destroyed Fort Saratoga. Attacked by French and Indians June 1747. Abandoned and burned fall of 1747. No further forts at this site, Fort Hardy was built in Schuylerville in 1755, a few miles to the north.
Clyde Blockhouse/Fort Clyde
Clyde Blockhouse, 1758, Wayne County, Town of Galen. Constructed about 1758 near the Clyde River, supposedly by "Indian Traders." This trading station was reported to have been a smuggling station from Canada during the American Revolution. A settlement grew up around the blockhouse originally known as Lauraville and then later the Village of Clyde. There is a reconstruction of the wooden blockhouse on the South side of NYS Route 31, a little East of its junction with NYS Route 414. The Village of Clyde supplied the following information. Clyde Blockhouse, 1777-1785, Wayne County. Is a replica of the Blockhouse which existed near this site in the 18th century. It was erected in 1975-1976 with money and material donated by the Parker-Hannifin Corp., and other local industries and businesses. It was built with all volunteer labor as a Town of Galen Bicentennial project. Although historians differ on facts about the Blockhouse, The Military History of Wayne County favors the account of Mr. Adrastus Snedaker, "an old and esteemed resident of Clyde. " Snedaker's information came from trappers who said the build-ing was put up on the north bank of the Clyde River, east of Vanderbilt Creek. Built during the French and Indian War. it was originally a fort of two stories, with the upper floor projecting over the lower. During the Revolutionary War, the building was used as a depot for storage of goods smuggled to and from Canada. The Blockhouse is believed to have burned prior to 1805. Taken from Morrison's History of Clyde Wayne County: Records dating back into colonial times reveal that first white men to have set their feet upon the ground that is now the VILLAGE of Clyde came early in 1722, when Governor Burnett of the Province of New-York sent an expedition into what is now the interior of the state to make a settlement or trading-post for the opening of a fur trade with the western Indians. He dispatched Lieu't. Jacob Verplank, Gilleyn Verplank, Johannis Visger, Jr.. Harmanus Schuyler, Johannis Van-den Bergh, Peter Groenandyck, and David Van der Hey-den with instructions to purchase a tract of land to be patented by those who would be the first settlers. The expedition left Albany in the spring and returned in September, establishing a post at Sodus Bay. On July 8th, a detachment of three men, Lieu't. Verplank, Harmanus Schuyler and David Van der Heyden left the post and went south into the woods led by a friendly Onondaga Indian, and within a few hours were upon the shore of a stream called Muddy Waters by the Indians, later called Mud Creek, and still later the Clyde River, They spent about a week putting up a BLOCK-HOUSE and then returned to the bay where they reported their activities. The building was two stories high, the upper projecting over the lower, at the sides and ends. In the floor of the upper story —- near the sides and ends — were the port holes, through which a volley might reach an enemy, A few days later Cap't. Schuyler received information of a plan to attack him at the bay by a party of French and Huron Indians, He left there and re-took possession of the BLOCK-HOUSE, which he prepared for its defense, remained only a week, and then went east down the river guided by the Onondaga Indians. Afterwards the structure served as a defense for many bands of Indians and whites that passed through this locality. It was used during the French and Indian War and also during the Revolutionary War by whoever happened to have possession of it. After peace had been declared between the United States and England, it was used by smugglers and marauding British soldiers until about 1800, when the Government sent soldiers to clean them out. During the fighting the building was set on fire and destroyed, It stood upon the north bank of the Clyde River and east of the mouth of Vanderbilt Creek, a little east of the old New-York Central Rail-road depot. The ground upon which the old relic stood wag a rounded elevation, sufficient to place it above the reach of high water, and was leveled off in the construction of the rail-road in 1852. In 1805, Cap't. Luther Redfield with his brother-in-law A Mr, Dryer, visited this locality. They ascended Dickson Hill, south-east of. the intersection of Mill and Redfield Streets, where they climbed a tree to take in the view, and clearly saw Lake Ontario. Descending the hill to the river, they made a raft of driftwood, and came over to the site of the BLOCK-HOUSE. It had been burned, but there were still left the charred ends of the logs at the corners — a few remains that entirely disappeared not[?] Several of the prominent citizens resolved to dig for the hidden treasure, and selecting the mid-night hour for such labor, they commenced their operations. Night after night had thus passed, when in the midst of the enthusiastic, prosecution of the enterprise, an ugly looking object appeared to them dressed in white, and of a seeming un-earthy origin. Then one of the party rushed up to the apparition with an. uplifted axe and exclaimed Be ye man or devil, I'm after you! The ghost (if such was the case) made one bound and sought quarters in some underbrush nearby, and after which time was no more seen. Many people believed that the whole party was more or less frightened, inasmuch as the money digging mania ceased from that hour. THE ABANDONED CANNON. IN September of 1779, a six-pound cannon was abandoned in the Clyde River, a little to the west of the village by Butler's Rangers from Pennsylvania on their full retreat before the victorious General John Sullivan. Butler, it appears, was a friend of the celebrated Indian warrior, Joseph Brant, one of the six nations (composed of the Mohawks, Senecas, Cayugas, Oneidas, Onondagas and Tuscaroras) none of whom were on friendly terms with the population of this section. When Butler and his Rangers found that the indomitable Sullivan was in hot pursuit and very close upon them, they sank their cannon beneath the swift rolling waters of the Clyde. Of this fact we have the testimony of men who settled in this region at an early day. John King, who was a business-man in Clyde more than a century and a quarter ago, and whose father was a genuine pioneer, said that in my 'boyhood it was currently reported among the trappers that a cannon had been sunk a little west of Clyde by Butler's men, and that raftsmen in passing through the, stream had touched it with their poles. Mae DeGolyer, another settler long since dead, and once a raftsman, used to say that I have seen Butler's cannon. It is therefore a historic fact that there is now a cannon buried, not necessarily beneath the waters of the Clyde River, for the stream may have changed its course since then, but very near and possibly on the shore of it. The uncertainty of its exact location will probably forever preclude attempts to secure the prize. When Aaron Griswold first came to Clyde in 1813, some thirty-four years after the invasion, the story of the old abandoned cannon was common talk. A. man named King claimed to know the exact location. and asserted that he had dived down and not only seen it, but had put his hand in the muzzle. No attempt was ever made at this time to recover it, but somewhere about 1840 a search was made for it, Aaron Griswold and Beriah Redfield in. the company of Mr. King, went up the river and spent some time in searching for the cannon, but failed to find it.
Cochecton Post
Cochecton Post, 1760, Sullivan County, Village of Cochecton. A stockaded blockhouse, the "Upper Fort" was on the "Jersey side" of the Delaware River, now New York State. The corresponding Lower Fort was Fort Delaware in Pennsylvania.
Cock Hill, Fort
Fort Cock Hill, 1776, New York County, New York. Patriot earthwork located near today's 207th Street just south of Spuyten Duyvil Creek on Inwood Hill. After evacuation used by the British who made extensive improvements including a surrounding abatis. Nearly abandoned and in ruins by 1781.
Cole's, Fort
Cole's Fort, 1755, Orange County, Port Jervis. Fortified home, in New Jersey at the time, of Wilhemus Cole 1730. Site at intersection of East Main Street and Jersey Avenue. Also reported used during Revolutionary War 1778. 120 Ft to a side palisade, with two blockhouses.
Columbus, Fort
Fort Columbus, 1803-1904, Kings County, Governors Island. Originally built as Fort Jay, re-named Columbus in 1803, reverted to Fort Jay in 1904.
Constitution, Fort
Fort Constitution, 1775, Putnam County, Garrison. On Constitution Island (Martlaer's Rock) in the Hudson River opposite West Point. Started summer 1775. Planned fort had bastions, 200 foot curtain rampart (14 cannon), five batterys with 81 cannon, barracks and an octagonal blockhouse with six cannon and magazine. By Nov 1775 had 70 cannon. By Jan 1776 construction stopped with materials going to Fort Montgomery. By Apr 1776 had only 22 cannon left. Burned and abandoned Oct 1777, captured and further destroyed by British same month. Partially rebuilt Feb 1778 as Fort 7 for East anchor of West Point chain (Spring 1778 to Winter 1782).
Conti, Fort
Fort Conti, 1679, Niagara County, Youngstown. On site of 1669 Fort La Salle. Two log blockhouses, 40 foot square connected by palisades, was built January 14-15, 1679 by Captain Robert Cavelier de La Salle. The post was named Fort Conti after Louis Armand de Bourbon, Prince of Conti, a patron of La Salle's lieutenant, Henri de Tonty. Also built was a barracks and warehouse 7 miles upriver at the foot of the gorge former site of Fort Hennepin 1678 (later site of Joncaire's blockhouse 1721) and an upper camp for shipbuilding at the end of the portage above the rapids at Cayuga Creek (near later site of Fort Little Niagara 1745). Attacked in November by Seneca Indians the occupants escaped and the fort was burned (other accounts say carelessness caused the fire and abandonment). Although La Salle may have used the portage in 1682-3, no attempt to rebuild was made until 1687 as Fort de Nonville.
Continental Village
Continental Village, 1776, Putnam County, Continental Village. A Continental Army community to house 1,500 troops North of Peekskill. Protected by Fort Independence and Fort Lookout. Peekskill stores destroyed prior to Patriot's retreat 21 March 1777, after the capture of Forts Clinton and Montgomery 9 October, the British attacked the Village which had been abandoned and subsequently destroyed it.
Corchaug, Fort
Fort Corchaug, Village of Cutchogue, Suffolk County, 1600s. Construction date of this early Native-American fort is unknown but was in existence in the early 1600s. Built by the Corchaugs, the rectangular shaped fort had walls measuring approximately 210 feet North-South, and 160 feet East-West. The site is located about one half mile North of Peconic Bay in the Village of Cutchogue, and was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1999. According to Dr. Ralph Solecki, who's research is the basis for this entry, no documentation exists to indicate the site was attacked. Submitted by 1st Lt. Bryan Pillai.
Corkscrew, Fort
Fort Corkscrew, 1776, Kings County, Brooklyn. This Patriot four-gun works stood on a high conical hill (since graded down) at a site now bordered by Atlantic Avenue, Court, Pacific, and Clinton Streets. Also known as Fort Cobble Hill and Spiral Fort. Occupied by the British until July 1781 when it was graded down and covered by the guns at Fort Stirling. Rebuilt in the War of 1812 as Fort Swift.
Corlaer's Hook, Fort
Corlaer's Hook Fort, 1812, New York County, New York. Fort or Open Battery on Corlaer's Hook.
Covington, Fort
Fort Covington, 1812, Franklin County, Town of Fort Covington , Covington Lane. Blockhouse that sheltered sick and wounded on retreat from Chrysler's Field battle in 1813, and winter quarters of General Wilkenson. Present day Covington Lane.
Crailo, Fort
Fort Crailo, Rensselaer County, Rensselaer. A fortified house, loopholed and surrounded by a Palisade.
Craven, Fort
Fort Craven, 1756, Oneida County, Rome. Also called Fort Pentagon. French and Indian War, On the Oneida Carry/Portage (Rome). Construction started June 1756. A pentagon shaped fort just south of Fort Williams to replace it. Major earthen fortifications 9 feet wide and timber faced. Three of five bastions were completed. Destroyed in retreat by British 20 Aug 1756 after French took Oswego. See Map at Oneida Carry Forts.
Crown Point, Fort
Fort Crown Point, 1759, Essex County, Crown Point. General Jeffrey Amherst started the fortress (incorrectly refered to as Fort Amherst), a very expensive undertaking for the Crown. This impressive fort, completed and garrisoned, was to 7 times larger than the French fort (Ste. Frederic), and was the largest British fortress in colonial America. The main fort was pentagon shaped with bastions at each point. Major earthen ramparts faced with logs, ditches and cleared fields of fire covered 7 acres and mounted 105 cannons. Inside were a number of stone barracks and officer's quarters. The entire fortification complex, including redoubts, blockhouses and redans, covered over 3.5 square miles. To the East was Grenadiers Redoubt, to the South East was the Light Infantry of Regiment's Redoubt, and to the South West was General Gages' Redoubt. There was a major fire at the fort in April 1773. During the Revolutionary War, General Arnold made some repairs and used some of the barracks. American troops occupied Grenadier's Redoubt and constructed another small fortification in the area.
Cummings, Fort
(1): 1779, Ontario County, Honeoye. Established as a temporary fort by the Americans in September 1779, at foot of Honeoye Lake. Originally an Indian Blockhouse used by Tory Rangers, used a supply base and for sick from expedition to Genesee Castle. Named for Captain John Cummings, its commander. Abandoned after expedition. (2): 1814, Kings County, Brooklyn. A reconstruction or reoccupation of Oblong Redoubt (1776) at intersection of DeKalb and Hudson Avenue (or between Putnam and Greene Avenues) on the Brooklyn Heights.

Special Recognition

This section was made possible by the hard work and diligent research of Col. Michael J. Stenzel, NYG. Col. Stenzel spent many years compiling the information contained on these pages.