Balcarres Redoubt, 1777, Saratoga County, Bemis Heights. October 1777, Battle of Saratoga. A strong British position 500 yards long and 12 to 14 feet high, mounting 8 guns. Incorporated the Freeman House. Located south of Brymann Redoubt. For more information see www.revolutionaryday.com/usroute4/saratoga/tour6.htm (Link will open new window.)
Balls Town, Fort
Fort Balls Town, 1775 (or 1772) Saratoga County, Town of Ballston, Ballston Lake. Stockaded fort, Site at intersection of Route 50 and Carleton Road. Survived to 1783. Sometime location given as Front St. in Village that marker now removed. Town Historical Marker is now at this location. Site of Rev. Ball's Log Church - 1771. Ballston Town Commons - 1774. Stockaded fort - 1775. Red Meeting House - 1780. Ballston Academy - 1804.
Barrier Gate, The
The Barrier Gate, 1779, New York County, New York City. A line of British fortifications from Fort Tryon in the West to Fort George on Laurel Hill in the East. The works consisted of a number of stockades and five redoubts. This fortified line was called the Barrier Gate.
Bath Beach Blockhouse
Bath Beach Blockhouse, 1814-1815, Bath Beach, Kings County. One of several blockhouses for the defense of NY Harbor ordered by Gen Joseph Smith, Chief of Engineers. (Bath Beach, Utrecht Bay, Denyse's Heights, Princess Bay, Jamaica Bay - Decatur) Records are not clear that all of the sites were constructed. For more information see www.geocities.com/fort_tilden/bhp.html. (Link will open new window.)
Battery Harris: 1921-1949, Kings Co., Fort Tilden. Two model M1919 MII 16 inch guns originally manufactured at the Watervliet Arsenal for Naval ships. Originally in open "Panama" mounts, they were casemented in the early 1940s. Range was 30 miles. The battery originally had two fire control towers that could azimuth the target. By 1944 the battery had seven base stations, ten spotting stations, and eight radar installations to direct fire.
Battery Kessler: 1917-1949, Kings Co., Fort Tilden. Originally called West Battery, named for Col. Percy Kessler, December 1939. Two model 1900, 6 inch "rapid fire" guns with a range of 16,550 yards.
Battery Weed: Later name of Fort Richmond. Named for Brev. BG Steven Weed killed at Gettysburg.
Battle of Wilton
Battle of Wilton: 1693, Town of Wilton, Kings Station, intersection of Parkhurst and Greenfield Roads, Saratoga County. Site of British - French engagement.
Becker Fort, Date unknown, Port Jervis, Orange County.
The story of Fort Bender, built in 1814, reflects the very same American ingenuity that led the Continental Army to an unlikely victory in the Revolutionary War three decades prior. Located near Lake Ontario, in Rochester, New York, the fort was hastily constructed as an intimidation tactic during the war of 1812. During the conflict, the citizens of Rochester, New York, feared a possible British invasion of their town, but, unfortunately, had less than three dozen soldiers to defend their livelihoods. So, to appear more formidable and numerous to onlooking armies, the soldiers constructed the fort and named it for Rochester resident Hastings R. Bender. Astonishingly, their gamble paid off, and the world’s strongest military was tricked into thinking that the measly militia of thirty-three untrained citizen soldiers were far stronger than they actually were. The ruse was a success; incredibly, the British decided against moving to capture Rochester.
Black Rock, Fort
Fort Black Rock, 1807, Erie County, Buffalo. Shown on map at Black Rock Creek, north of Buffalo. Near future Fort Porter. Near site of Battle of Black Rock in War of 1812.
Bloody Pond, Battle of
Bloody Pond (Battle), 1755 and 1780, Lake George, Warren Co. Here Sept. 8, 1755 (Battle of Lake George) the Colonial Forces under Lieut. Col. Cole checked the hitherto successful advance of Baron Dieskau and his allies, changing the British rout into ultimate victory. Here likewise on the evening of the same day - Capt. McGinnis assisted by Capt. Folsom with 200 New York and New Hampshire men, fell upon 300 Canadians and Indians encamped near the pond for the night. After a desperate struggle the French force was almost annihilated. Over 200 bodies rolled into the pool stained the water red and gave it its name. In this conflict Rogers, the famous Ranger made his debut as a soldier. Near this spot Oct. 11, 1780 Major Christopher Carleton and his band of Regulars, Tories and Indians, defeated with great loss, Captain John Sill and an American detachment from Fort George forcing the surrender of that station. For more information see: www.historiclakes.org/wm_henry/bloody.html (Link will open new window.)
Camp Bluefields, pre 1915, Rockland County, Town of Blauvelt. Former New York National Guard Rifle Range used as POW Camp in WW1. Now a County Park.
Boeing and Michigan Aerospace Research Center (BOMARC)
BOMARC, The missle site in Westhampton was operated by the 6th Air Defense Missle Squadron of the USAF Air Defense Command (ADC). It was operational with the first version of the BOMARC missle, the BOMARC A, from 1959 through 1964. The base has 56 missle shelters. Each missle was armed with a 10-Kiloton nuclear warhead. The former missle site is currently used by Suffolk County as a police training facility, motor vehicle impound lot and archives. For more information see www.astronautix.com/lvs/bomarc.htm
Castle Bogardus, 1813, Queens. On Lawrence Hill near Hallet's Point. Southeast of Fort Stevens, a six sided stone tower, loopholed, several cannon on top.
Established in 1776, in Brooklyn, Fort Box was constructed during the Revolutionary War to thwart a potential British attack on New York. The fort’s strength was put to the test during the Battle of Brooklyn (Also known as the Battle of Long Island), though, where the American garrison was utterly overwhelmed, and the fortification was captured by British forces in one of the most one-sided battles of the American Revolution. Notes: - Fort took the form of a small diamond shaped outpost - Building was constructed on Bergen's Hill during the spring of 1776. - The site was near present day Pacific Street, above Bond Street. - The fortress was named for Major Daniel Box. - Fort Box was part of a line of entrenchments spanning from Brooklyn to Fort Greene, to Oblong Redoubt, to Fort Putnam, and finally to Left Redoubt at Wallabout Bay. - Each structure was a complete entity surrounded by a wide ditch, the sides of which were lined with pointed stakes. - Each outpost had sally-ports; Most of the line also had abatises. - It is possible that Fort Fireman may have been built on or near the same site. Information contributed by William Harris: 1. During sewer infrastructure work 3 years ago, a previously un- known water well was discovered under a thick bluestone lid just off the northeast corner of the intersection of Pacific and Bond Streets, Brooklyn, 11217. The same is sited about 16 feet from my house property line. Relying on NYSSMM website notes and a recently discovered map referred to in 2, below, the NYC Landmarks Preservation Commission authorized the wording on the plaque, attached, which will soon be installed adjoining the well site. 2. Of enormous help in verifying the site of Fort Box, I refer here to the recently discovered Sproule map of about 1778. Sproule was employed by the conquering British to survey all military emplacements extant in Brooklyn 1776. It reveals that Fort Box was erected on a promontory created during the glacial period. This was known then as Bergen's Hill. On what is today the same city block, just around the corner, is Fort Fireman from the War of 1812, also on Bergen's Hill and with it's own GPS site. The Sproule map at the Brooklyn Historical Society and it has been digitized and viewable online. Note: the BHS collections have recently been folded into the Brooklyn Public Library system. You will find the Sproule map contains a wealth of information previously unknown.
Brainardsville Atlas F, Site #10
Brainardsville Atlas F, Site #10, 1961-65, Franklin County, Brainardsville. See ATLAS F for detailed information.
Fort Brewerton was constructed in 1759 in Oswego County, New York, considered by some as the “prehistoric capital” of New York State. It was built by the British for the purpose of defending the path between Oswego and Albany. The fort took the shape of an eight-sided star and was surrounded by a moat with a depth of ten feet. Presently, the site where the fort once stood hosts the Oliver Stevens Blockhouse Museum. Notes: - The site on which the fort once stood is located on US Route 11.
Breymann Redoubt, October 1777, Saratoga County, Bemis Heights. Battle of Saratoga. A British position of log breastworks 200 yards long. www.revolutionaryday.com/usroute4/saratoga/tour7.htm (Link opens new window.)
During World War I, the community produced food for the war effort. In June 1918, an aviation camp, Brindley Field, was set up on the corner of Jericho Turnpike and Larkfield Road. It became the home of the 211th Aero Squadron for advanced airplane training. The base was deactivated in May, 1919. From: www.eastnorthport.com/townhistory.htm [link opens new window] Q. What about Brindley Field? A. Well the Brindley Field was another highlight experience too. The first thing we knew of Brindley Field, or any activity of it occurring there, was in June 1918. The first sight of any of this activity was a long line of army trucks coming up the old Jericho Turnpike with soldiers in them. To see a truck of any kind was a unique experience in those days. They just didn't exist in Commack. And they came around the corner into Larkfield Road, or it was known as Larkfield Avenue in those days, and pulled right into the gates of the property on the north east corner of Jericho Turnpike and Larkfield Avenue. Then we learned, or I did, that it was to become a training field for aviators to be sent to France during W.W.I to be fighter pilots. The field itself consisted of ninety acres of land, with the buildings, and barns, one large barn, and several other storage barns of a smaller size, and other out buildings. Ana a main house which they immediately established as a headquarters for the field. From that time on, for the next month or so, the place blossomed out into a tent city. I'd say up until the middle of July it was a tent city, with all the troops stationed there. The first thing I remember being built in there, in the way of buildings, was the mess halls where the soldiers had to go to eat their meals. The next permanent buildings being built were the barracks for the men to sleep in. In the beginning the tent city was used as their sleeping quarters. I also remember the set up of officers tents, and the medical center in a tent. The army provided medical officers there to take care of the troops health. One we knew, and became quite friendly with, an older army officer, a Lieutenant Frachs who came from Missouri, a real old timer, a real army man. We became friends with a number of others in the period of three to four months that the field was in real full operation. Then about the first of August they built quite a number of barracks. I think all together about sixteen or twenty of them all together. They were built along the north side of Jericho. The nearest barrack was just inside the fence line on the pike. Speaking of the barracks, the first electricity to reach Commack was brought to Brindley Field purposely to light up the barracks. That was a line that ran down Larkfield Ave. The problem there was these high-tension lines were right in the path of some of the take off points of the planes. The government got Lilco to move the high-tension lines back west a thousand feet off the main road and that cleared the way for there take off. When the wind was to the west they had to take off in that direction and it wasn’t safe with the wires there. Those lines ran right down to the barracks. What a sight to see thousands of lights all concentrated in one area! It was quite a shocker so to speak. Up to that time we were using oil lamps for light. The field was protected everyday by guards who would walk the parameter of the field. After July there were no more visitors allowed inside the camp. I had some access in the beginning being a kid, but they gradually phased me out. Towards the end of that summer they found they needed more space so the rented some more land to the east. In one case they had to condemn the land from the owner, but only temporarily. They did some considerable clearing of woodland in the north east corner of the property. They cleared that area of trees entirely. They cut them down, removed the stumps, and graded it off. That was quite a project. Then they felt they had enough safe room to feel satisfied with. In September of 1918 the war was coming quite rapidly to a close and I can remember the newspapers with the headlines and photo’s of who’s where, and what the army did. At this time in September some people rented land from us on the west of Larkfield Ave. across from the camp to open up an eatery for when the soldiers were off duty. They had a little building and sold food and drinks, and along with that newspapers. In August of 1918 they started to build five big steel hangers, the nearest one was about one hundred and fifty feet from Larkfield Ave. They stood in a line behind the original hay barn that had been used to hold airplane parts at that time. They were for what we called Jenny planes at the time. This field was a satellite field of Mitchell Field in Mineola and was the last training field for flyers before they went to France. It was a very important field at the time and sometimes other planes would fly in for a few days Some were the DH-4 with the most powerful engine at the time. It was designed in 1918 by these five guys hired to make the best engine they could for the war. In the last days of the war the newspapers had more headlines of what had been accomplished. Then came the Armistice in November and the people were quite happy. Q. What happened with the plane crash? A. They had dog fights in their training over the field and surrounding areas. One of the most serious accidents happened while they were having dog fights over the Havemeyer property east of Townline Road. Two pilots were killed when their plane crashed into the ground after loosing control. What happened was one of the wings crumbled. It as the only death during all that flying time. I can actually remember when the accident happened because someone had come over to our house and told us that there had been a crash over in east Commack. In the medic's hurry to get there they tried to go straight instead of taking the roads and that was a mistake because they ran into hedgerows and had to take down fences. But it was no use to save them because they were both killed outright. There was quite a service held for the two pilots at Mitchell Field, and then they were shipped by train one to California, and one to Pennsylvania ***** "Let there be light!" Between 1921-23, electricity was wired into the church. There was none in Comac until after 1918, since Brindley Field in Comac was responsible for bringing it for its own use during World War I, and it became available to homes, stores, and the Church. From: https://www.commack.church/history
Brookhaven Nike Site
Brookhaven Nike Base (NY-25), 1957-71, Suffolk County, Brookhaven, Rocky Point. Launcher Area for 30 Nike-Ajax Missiles, later replaced with 18 Nike-Hercules Missiles. Between Wading River Manor Road and NY Route 46, North of NY Route 25A. Now Rocky Point USAR Center, Launch area and pits reported intact. IFC area was Rocky Point. Inactivated 1971. For more sites see NIKE and for more information see alpha.fdu.edu/~bender/NY25.html (Link will open new window.)
Brooklyn Army Base and Brooklyn Army Terminal
Brooklyn Army Base & Brooklyn Army Terminal, 1941/1955, Kings County, Brooklyn. The US Army's main port of embarkation in New York City. Located on the Brooklyn waterfront at 1st and 58th Street. Consisting of a large complex of piers, docks, warhouses, cranes, railroad sidings and cargo loading equipment. Responsible for shipment of army equipment and personnel overseas. Renamed Brooklyn Army Terminal in 1955.
Brooklyn Coast Guard Air Station
Brooklyn Coast Guard Air Station, 1938, Kings County, Brooklyn. Floyd Bennet Field. In 1942-44, site of first operational helicopter testing and pilot training for US Military. First helicopter aid mission flown from here 14 February 1944. Coast Guard Air Station from 1938 to present. For more information see: www.aero-web.org/history/fbennett/fbennett.htm (Link will open new window.)
Brooklyn Naval Yard
Brooklyn Naval Yard, 1801, Kings County, Brooklyn. Located on Wallabout Bay, in Brooklyn, where during the American Revolution thousands of prisoners died aboard British prison ships, the Navy Yard was established by the federal government in 1801. It was the site for the construction of Robert Fulton's steam frigate, the Fulton, launched in 1815, as well as of other historic vessels which included the USS Missouri. The Navy Yard was also the location of the US Naval Lyceum, organized in 1833, which maintained a reading room, library, and museum, and published a navy magazine. During the Civil War, the Yard expanded its operations and its employees numbered about 6,000. The Navy Yard continued in operation through the first and second world wars, but was decommissioned in 1966.
Fort Brooklyn was built by the British Army during the American Revolution to consolidate the Empire’s occupation of the region. The fort was constructed in 1780, in King's County Brooklyn, and was levelled to make room for urban development between 1823 and 1825. Notes: - Fort Brooklyn was constructed on Brooklyn Heights. - The site was near what is now Pierrepont and Henry Street, about four blocks from Fort Stirling. - The fort was 450 feet square with ramparts between forty and fifty feet above the bottom of an encircling ditch. - Each angle had a bastion, and there was a substantial barracks as well as two magazines.
Fort Brown was built in 1814 along the Saranac River, in Plattsburgh, New York. The fortification was involved in the Battle of Plattsburgh, during the War of 1812. The clash ended in an American victory; soldiers stationed at the fort had mounted a successful defense against encroaching British forces, halting the superpower’s advance into American territory. Notes: - The redoubt on the river was used in the Battle of Plattsburgh; it boasted eight guns and four interior buildings. For more information see: www.historiclakes.org/Plattsburg/plattsburg2.html (link opens new window)
Camp Buckner, (Popolopen) 1821, Orange County, West Point. Summer Camp from 1821-1942 located at site of Fort Clinton (3) on Athletic Field. Summer Camp was relocated to Camp Popolopen (on Lake Popolopen South West of main West Point campus) in 1942 and the camp later renamed Buckner in 1945. 80 Acre site.
Buffalo Barracks (Poinsett Barracks), 1839-1845, Erie County, Buffalo. Originally called Buffalo Barracks also known as Poinsett for Secretary of War Joel Poinsett. Constructed to house troops in the area due to tensions with Canada from the Patriot's War. Leased area bounded by Main, Allen, Delaware and North Streets in October 1939. The majority of buildings surrounded a rectangular parade grounds on the Northern end of the Post by December. Mid 1840 three Officer's Quarters, known as the Theodore Roosevelt Inaugural Site, were erected along Delaware, one remains. After completion of nearby Fort Porter, the post was redundant, and closed in September 1845.
Buffalo Batteries (1812)
Buffalo Batteries (1812), 1812-14, Erie County, Buffalo. A series of batteries from the Front to Conjaquadie's Creek. Terrace Battery, Gookins Battery (1 - 24 pounder), Old Sow Battery (8 inch mortar), Fort Tompkins(3), Gibson's Battery (3 guns), Dudley's Battery, Swift's Battery, and Sailor's Battery (3- 32 pounders). Also, during the Battle of Black Rock, Morgan's Battery, and North of the Creek Black Rock Blockhouse.
Fort Bull was constructed by the British in 1755, in Rome, New York. The fortification was built for the purpose of protecting the Oneida Carry, an eighteenth-century trade route between the eastern seaboard and inland settlements. Although the fort could accommodate upwards of five-dozen men, this force was not enough to repel the French attack on it that came during the Seven Years’ War. In the Spring of 1756, after the dust had settled, Fort Bull was burnt to the ground by French forces. Notes: - Originally, Fort Bull was to be called Fort Wood Creek. - Fort Bull took the shape of a star; it was a wood stockade with four interior buildings. - The fortress was located on the upper landing of Wood Creek, which was the western terminus of the carry. - The fort was rebuilt by August of 1756, and from then on was known as Fort Wood Creek.
Bunker Hill, Fort
Fort Bunker Hill (also known as Independent Battery) was established in New York City by the Continental Army. The fort resembled a seven-pointed star and was outfitted with various cannons and mortars. Despite its impressive features, Fort Bunker Hill was promptly captured by British forces in 1776 during the early battles of the Revolutionary War. American forces would not retake the battery until 1783, after peace had already been brokered, and the war was won. The fort never saw use again following the war and was abandoned that same year. Notes: - Fort Bunker Hill featured very extensive sod-banked earthworks, and the site is located in an area now bounded by Centre, Broome, Mott and Grand Streets. - The fort had several batteries. - Upon the American evacuation, the British erected defenses in lower Manhattan in May 1780 which included "Bunker Hill", all work stopped May 1782.
Burnet's Field Blockhouses
Burnet's Field Blockhouses, 1757, Herkimer County, German Flatts. Five blockhouses on the Mohawk River, Canada and Bellinger Creeks. Raid in Nov 1757 destroyed all blockhouses and village.
Bushwick (Boswyck) Blockhouses
Bushwick (Boswyck) Blockhouses, 1662/3, Kings County, Brooklyn, Village of Boswyck. Two blockhouses at ends of village.