Black Americans In The US Military From The American Revolution To The Korean War: Conclusion And Bibliography
Black American contribution to America’s military history should not be viewed in terms of numbers only. While the Black population has always been a minority, it has made many achievements, many unsung. The reward for their valiant effort on the battlefield has yet to be completed. The Black soldiers fought in the belief that someday they would be treated equal to the White man, even after so many broken promises, such as gaining freedom for helping fight the British in the Revolutionary War. As noted earlier, it sometimes took a long time for units to receive the proper recognition for their efforts. Only in 1972 did the 25th Infantry’s 1st Battalion receive dishonorable discharges after the “incident” in 1906, in Brownsville, Texas. For their achievements in the Spanish-American War, the 9th and 10th Cavalry, and the 25th Infantry Division never received an apology from President Theodore Roosevelt, who discredited all of their achievements, despite relying on these regiments for the rescue of his own, the Rough Riders. White soldiers have witnessed the ability of Black soldiers to fight fiercely, but only in World War II did the units integrate, only by necessity. In the Korean War, units were integrated due to the anti-segregation policy of General Matthew B. Ridgway, who replaced General MacArthur. Black servicemen, through their achievements, gained recognition from White servicemen. However, the U.S. Government and its leaders have been hesitant to praise their achievements, due to political and sometimes personal reasons.
Written by David Omahen
The American Revolution to 1808
The War of 1812
The Civil War
The Indian Wars
The Spanish American War and the Philippine Insurgency
The Brownsville Incident and Teddy Roosevelt
World War One
The Spanish Civil War
World War Two
The Korean War
Conclusion and Bibliography
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Buckley, Gail Lumet. American patriots : the story of Blacks in the military from the Revolution to Desert Storm. New York: Random House. 2001.
Feltus, Pamela. "The Korean War." US Centennial of Flight Commission. <https://www.centennialofflight.net/essay/Air_Power/korea/AP38.htm>.
Nalty, Bernard C. Strength for the Fight: A History of Black Americans in the Military. New York: The Free Press. 1986.
Powell, Anthony L. "An Overview: Black Participation In The Spanish-American War." Spanish American War Centenial Website. <http://www.spanamwar.com/AfroAmericans.htm>.
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Terry, Wallace. Bloods: An Oral History of the Vietnam War by Black Veterans. New York: Random House. 1984.
"Unlikely Liberators: African American and Japanese American Soldiers who Liberated Concentration Camps Honored in Special Program and Museum Exhibit." See <https://www.researchgate.net/publication/295456181_Unlikely_liberators_The_men_of_the_100th_and_442nd>
US State Department. "Recall of General Douglas MacArthur (1951)." Department of State Bulletin. 16 April 1951. <http://archive.org/details/departmentofstatx2451unit>.