10th Artillery Regiment
Nickname: Black River Artillery; Jefferson County Regiment
Organized by consolidation of existing units, the 4th, 5th, and 7th battalions of artillery: December 31, 1862.
Mustered out: June 23, 1865.
The following is taken from New York in the War of the Rebellion, 3rd ed. Frederick Phisterer. Albany: J. B. Lyon Company, 1912.
This regiment was organized December 31, 1862, of the 4th, 5th and 7th Battalions of Artillery, and Alexander Piper appointed its Colonel. The battalions had been organized at Sackett's Harbor in September, 1862, and the consolidation was effected under the orders of the War Department, dated December 27, 1862. The companies were mustered into the service of the United States for three years; at Sackett's Harbor, A, B, C, D, E, F, G and M September nth; H and I September 12; at Staten Island, Company K November 12, and at Fort Schuyler, Company L December 27, 1862.
They were recruited principally: A — originally Company A 5th Battalion, or 2d Battalion Black River, Artillery — at Watertown; B — originally D 4th Battalion, or 1st Battalion Black River, Artillery — at Rodman, Adams, Lorraine and Worth; C — originally C 5th Battalion, or 2d Battalion Black River Artillery — at Antwerp, Evan's Mills, LeRay and Philadelphia; D — originally B 4th Battalion, or 1st Battalion Black River, Artillery—at Champion, Croghan, Diana, Rutland and Wilna; E — originally A 4th Battalion, or 1st Battalion Black River, Artillery — Ellisburgh and Henderson; F — originally D 5th Battalion, or 2d Battalion Black River, Artillery — at Alexandria and Theresa; G — originally B 5th Battalion, or 2d Battalion Black River, Artillery — at Clayton and Orleans; H — originally A 7th Battalion, or 4th Battalion Black River, Artillery — at Antwerp, Adams, Boonville, Houndsfield, Watertown and Worth; I — originally B 7th Battalion, or 4th Battalion Black River, Artillery—-at Brownville and Houndsfield; K — originally C 7th Battalion, or 4th Battalion Black River, Artillery — at Watertown, Cape Vincent, Clayton, Orleans, Rutland, Pamelia, LeRay and Osceola; L — originally D 7th Battalion, or 4th Battalion Black River, Artillery—at Ellisburgh, Henderson, Adams, Watertown, Lynn, Cape Vincent and Houndsfield, and M — originally C 4th Battalion, or 1st Battalion Black River, Artillery — at Cape Vincent, Pamelia and Lynn.
The 4th Battalion served at Fort Richmond and Sandy Hook, New York harbor, from September, 1862, until June, 1863, when it joined the other battalions; the 5th and 7th Battalions left the State September 17, 1862, and served in the defenses of Washington, D. C., and 3d Brigade, Haskins' Division, 22d Corps, from that time. The regiment, having left Washington May 24, 1864, served in the 4th Brigade, 1st Division, 18th Corps, from June 5, 1864; in the 1st Brigade, 2d Division, 18th Corps, from June 24, 1864; in the 1st Brigade, DeRussy's Division, 22d Corps, from August, 1864; in the 2d Brigade, Provisional Division, with the Army of the Shenandoah, from September 27, 1864; and in the 2d Brigade, Ferrero's Division, Army of the James, at Bermuda Hundred, from December, 1864, as heavy artillery and infantry.
June 23d, 1865, the regiment, commanded by Lieut-Col. George DePeyster Arden, was honorably discharged and mustered out at Petersburg, Va.; the men not entitled to be discharged then, were transferred to Companies E, F and G, and these were assigned to the 6th N. Y. Volunteer Artillery, second organization, as Companies E, F and G, respectively, July 19, 1865.
During its service the regiment lost by death, killed in action, 26 enlisted men; of wounds received in action, 21 enlisted men; of disease and other causes, 2 officers, 218 enlisted men; total, 2 officers, 265 enlisted men; aggregate, 267; of whom 2 enlisted men died in the hands of the enemy.
The following is taken from The Union army: a history of military affairs in the loyal states, 1861-65 -- records of the regiments in the Union army -- cyclopedia of battles -- memoirs of commanders and soldiers, Volume II: New York, Maryland, West Virginia and Ohio. Madison, WI: Federal Pub. Co., 1908.
Tenth Artillery (Heavy).—Col., Alexander Piper; Lieut.-Cols., Joseph Spratt, G. De Peyster Arden; Majs., Joseph Spratt, James B. Campbell, Thomas W. Osborne, Charles C. Abell, G. De Peyster Arden, S. R. Cowles. This regiment, known as the Black River artillery, or the Jefferson county regiment, was organized on Dec. 31, 1862, of the 1st, 2nd and 4th battalions, Black River artillery, the battalions having been organized at Sacket's Harbor in September, and the consolidation took place on Dec. 27. The men were recruited in the counties of Jefferson and Lewis and were mustered into the U. S. service for three years as follows: Cos. A, B, C, D, E, F, G and M on Sept. 11, at Sacket's Harbor; H and I on Sept. 12; at Staten island; Co. K on Nov. 12, and Co. L on Dec. 27, at Fort Schuyler. The 2nd and 4th battalions left the state on Sept. 17, 1862, and were at once assigned to garrison duty in the forts about Washington; the 1st battalion garrisoned Fort Richmond and Sandy Hook, N. Y. harbor until June, 1863, when it joined the others at Washington. In the latter part of May, 1864, the regiment was sent to the front with the other heavy artillery commands to reinforce Gen. Grant and on its arrival was assigned, first to the 4th brigade, 1st division, and on June 24 to the 1st brigade, 2nd division, i8th corps. It was in action for the first time at Cold Harbor, where it lost 9 killed and wounded, and in the assault on Petersburg in June it sustained a loss of 43 killed and wounded. On Aug. 13, 1864, it was withdrawn from the front and assigned to the 1st brigade, De Russy's division, 22nd corps; it joined the provisional division of the Army of the Shenandoah on Sept. 27; was engaged with small loss at Cedar creek; was assigned in December to the 2nd brigade, Ferrero's division. Army of the James, at Bermuda Hundred; and was actively engaged in the final assault on Petersburg, April 2, 1865, losing 90 killed, wounded and missing. While in the works before Petersburg, from June 15 to Aug. 13, 1864, and from Dec, 1864, to April 2, 1865, it sustained losses, amounting in the aggregate to 11 killed, 76 wounded and I missing, a total of 88. Though known as an artillery regiment, the men were armed and drilled as infantry. Under command of Lieut.-Col. Arden, the loth was mustered out at Petersburg on June 23, 1865, except recruits, which were consolidated into three companies and transferred to the 6th N. Y. artillery on June 27. The regiment lost during service 47 men killed and mortally wounded; 2 officers and 218 men died of disease, accidents, in prison, etc., a total of 267.